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DetectX® Cortisol ELISA Kits

• Cortisol is the primary glucocorticoid produced and secreted by the adrenal cortex and is referred to as the “stress hormone,” as it is involved in the response to stress and it affects blood pressure, blood sugar levels, and other actions of stress adaptation.

• Production of cortisol follows an ACTH-dependent circadian rhythm, with a peak level in the morning and decreasing levels throughout the day.
• Abnormal levels of cortisol are involved in Cushing’s syndrome and Addison’s disease. • Abnormal cortisol levels are being evaluated for correlation with a variety of different conditions such as prostate cancer, depression, and schizophreni

DetectX® Glutathione (GSH) Detection Kits

Glutathione, the major endogenous antioxidant produced by cells, plays a critical role in protecting  organisms from oxidative stress and related cytotoxicity. The ratio of reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione is an important measure of a cell’s ability to maintain redox homeostasis. 
Assessing GSH status is critical for studying oxidative stress mechanisms and downstream effects of oxidative damage.
Our DetectX® Glutathione (GSH) Detection Assay Kits allow for convenient, rapid, and easy quantitation of both GSH and GSSG for an accurate measurement of a cell’s oxidative status in a variety of sample types.

DetectX® Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) Activity Kit

• Given its pivotal role in ameliorating oxidative stress/damage, GST activity has been repeatedly investigated as a biomarker for arthritis, asthma, COPD, and multiple forms of cancer, as well as an environmental marker.
• Examination of GST isoforms and activity in human cancers, tumors and tumor cell lines has revealed the predominance of the acidic pi class. Furthermore, this activity is thought
to substantially contribute to the innate or acquired resistance of specific neoplasms to anticancer therapy.

DetectX® Glutathione Reductase (GR) Activity Kit

• Glutathione reductase (GR) plays an indirect but essential role in the prevention of oxidative damage within the cell by helping to maintain appropriate levels of intracellular glutathione (GSH).
• GSH, in conjuction with the enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GP), is the acting reductant responsible for minimizing harmful hydrogen peroxide cellular levels. The regeneration of GSH is catalyzed by GR.
• GR is a ubiquitous 100-120 kDa dimeric flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to reduced glutathione, using β-nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) as the hydrogen donor.
• Molecules such as NADPH act as hydride donors in a variety of enzymatic processes. NADPH has been suggested to also act as an indirectly operating antioxidant, given its role in the re-reduction of GSSG to GSH and thus maintaining the antioxidative power of glutathione.

DetectX® Corticosterone ELISA Kits

• Corticosterone is a glucocorticoid secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland and is produced in response to stimulation of the adrenal cortex by ACTH
• A major indicator of stress and is the major stress steroid produced in non-human mammals

• Glucocorticoids guide fundamental processes associated with converting sugar, fat, and protein stores to usable energy, inhibiting swelling and inflammation, and suppressing
immune responses following a stress event
• Corticosterone is believed to play a decisive role in sleep-wake patterns

DetectX® Urea Nitrogen (BUN) Colorimetric Detection Kits

• Urea is a by-product of protein metabolism by the liver, and is removed from the blood by the kidneys. It filters through the glomerulus, but is reabsorbed by the renal tubules in a
flow-dependent fashion.
• The level of circulating urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, serve as a primary measure of kidney function.
• Azotemia, poor kidney function, will cause elevated BUN levels (≥ 50 mg/dL) and is associated with acute kidney failure or injury, severe acute pancreatitis, congestive heart failure or gastrointestinal bleeding.

DetectX® Estradiol ELISA Kits

• Estradiol is a regulator of growth, differentiation and function in tissues for both male and females.
• Estradiol influences bone growth, brain development, and food intake.
• It is critical in maintaining organ functions during severe trauma.
• In plasma, it is bound to serum proteins such as albumin and sex hormone binding globulins.
• Just over 2% of Estradiol is free and biologically active, remaining constant throughout the menstrual cycle.

DetectX® Testosterone ELISA Kits

• Testosterone plays a key role in the development of male reproductive tissues, and it promotes secondary sexual characteristics such as increased muscle, bone mass, and the
growth of body hair.
• In the absence of testosterone stimulation, spermatogenesis does not proceed beyond the meiosis stage.
• It is essential for health and well-being, preventing osteoporosis, and plays a significant role in glucose homeostatis and lipid metabolism.
• Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of risk factors predisposing to type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
• Observed in most vertebrates but fish make a slightly different form called 11-ketotestosterone, and in insects its counterpart is ecdysone.

DetectX® Oxytocin ELISA Kits

Oxytocin and the related neurohypophysial peptide, Arg8-Vasopressin, maintain renal water and sodium balance. It was once thought to be limited to female smooth muscle reproductive physiology and acting as a neurotransmitter. Recent studies have begun to investigate its role in behaviors, such as:

• Orgasm

• Social recognition
• Pair bonding
• Anxiety
• Maternal Behaviors
• Male physiology

DetectX® PGE2 Multi-Format ELISA Kits

• PGE2 is produced in a wide variety of tissues and in several pathological conditions, including: inflammation, arthritis, fever, tissue injury, endometriosis and a variety of cancers.
• Other biological actions of PGE2 include vasodilation modulation of sleep/wake cycles, and facilitation of human immunodeficiency virus replication.
• It elevates cAMP levels, stimulates bone resorption, and has thermoregulatory effects. It has been shown to be a regulator of sodium excretion and renal hemodynamics.

DetectX® 2’,3’-Cyclic GAMP ELISA Kits

2’,3’-Cyclic guanosine monophosphate–adenosine monophosphate (cyclic GMP-AMP, cGAMP, cyclic [G(2’,5’)pA(3’,5’)p]) . 2’,3’-cGAMP is referred to as “noncanonical“ cGAMP due to the presence of the atypical 2’-5’ phosphodiester linkage between the guanosine and the adenosine. 
Produced in mammalian cells by cGAS (cGAMP synthase) in response to double-stranded DNA in the cytoplasm binding to cGAS, cGAMP binds to the stimulator of interferon genes (STING). Subsequently STING induces the TBK1-IRF3-dependent production of IFN-β. This cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway has been shown to play a critical role in pathogen detection and physiological conditions such as metabolic dysregulation, autoimmunity, and cancer.

DetectX® Progesterone ELISA Kits

• Progesterone is an essential regulator of female reproductive function and plays an important role in the cardiovascular system, bone and central nervous system.
• It plays an important role in brain function as a neurosteroid.
• PRA and PRB, two isoforms of the nuclear progesterone receptor, are expressed in a variety of normal breast tissue and in breast cancer cells.
• Progesterone is also a crucial metabolic intermediate in the production of otherendogenous steroids, including sex hormones and corticosteroids.
• Analysis of progesterone and its metabolites is essential to investigate and better understand stress responses and reproductive status of study organisms.

DetectX® 11-Ketotestosterone ELISA Kits

Androgenic hormones, such as testosterone, affect the growth, size, and reproduction of many male organisms. In teleost fish, along with testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone plays a significant role by inducing reproductive characteristics in both males and females. In certain male fish, 11-ketotestosterone levels increase during spermatogenesis in spawning season, while in some female fish, levels increase prior to yolk deposition to regulate ovarian development. The presence and involvement of 11-ketotestosterone in other species, such as humans, have only recently been established, and this body of research is growing